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DHS Research and Reports - Children, Youth and Families

pdf.gif Introducing Performance-Based Contracting: A Comparison of Implementation Models
Published, October 2014
This report provides an overview of the design and implementation of Performance-Based Contracting with senior centers, child welfare placement agencies and providers serving offenders discharged from the Allegheny County Jail.

pdf.gif Inua Ubuntu: An Assessment of Implementation, Program Process and Child Welfare Involvement
Sarah Thurston, Ervin Dyer and Evelyn Whitehill, Published August 2014

The Inua Ubuntu program was implemented in 2010, to address disproportionate child welfare involvement and out-of-home placement of African American boys and young men. The program, which was based on an African-centric concept of family and community, was implemented in three Pittsburgh communities. This report describes the program and its implementation, service outcomes and practice implications.

pdf.gif Permanency Roundtables: Challenging Barriers to Permanency for Children in Out-of-Home Care
Christine H. O’Toole, Published July 2014 (data current as of March 31, 2014)  

Permanency Roundtables are a key component of DHS’s larger strategy to ensure safety, permanency and well-being for every child in out-of-home placement in the child welfare system. Implemented in 2012 with support and technical assistance from Casey Family Program, roundtables have thus far focused on 132 children and youth whose permanency goals were stalled due to a variety of difficult-to-resolve challenges. The roundtable process engages child welfare professionals and permanency experts in a brainstorming session designed to identify creative solutions to these barriers to permanency. An action plan is then developed that includes concrete steps, responsible parties and target dates; specific strategies are in place for following-up on the recommendations included in the action plan.

This report provides a description of the Permanency Roundtables as well as the child-specific and systemwide outcomes of the process.

pdf.gif I'll Never Get Used to It: Young People Living on the Street 
Published, May 2014 

Despite Allegheny County’s rich array of services to prevent and address homelessness, approximately 240 young people, ages 18 through 24, are living on the street, in abandoned buildings, and in shelters. Designed to inform local leaders, this report places the local issue within a national context and provides information about local services available to these youth and ways in which our region might improve its systems to prevent chronic homelessness and better support youth while they are experiencing a housing crisis.

 pdf.gif DataBrief: Fathers in Child Welfare Cases
Published, October 2013 

The Allegheny County Department of Human Services conducted an analysis of the frequency with which fathers are identified in child welfare cases in order to inform ongoing efforts to improve the engagement of fathers. This brief provides a summary of the first look at the data.

pdf.gif DataBrief: Drug-Exposed Newborns
Published, October 2013 

Prenatal exposure to drugs and/or alcohol can have serious health and developmental consequences for newborns. An analysis of data from 2009 through 2011 found that such cases accounted for less than two percent of the children referred to the child welfare system in Allegheny County. This brief provides information about these cases.

pdf.gif DataBrief: Human Services Involvement of Home-Schooled and Cyber Charter School-Enrolled Students in Pittsburgh Public Schools
Published, October 2013 

Data were analyzed to compare human services involvement of students who were home-schooled and enrolled in cyber charter schools to the general student population of the Pittsburgh Public School District. Involvement in human services was less for both home-schooled students and cyber charter school-enrolled students. This brief provides an overview of the demographic and human services involvement comparison among public school, home-schooled and cyber charter school-enrolled students.

pdf.gif Psychotropic Medication Use by Allegheny County Youth in Out-of-Home-Placement
Community Care Behavioral Health and the Allegheny County Department of Human Services, October 2013 

The use of psychotropic medication to treat youth in out-of-home placement has received a great deal of attention, both locally and nationally.  In this report, prepared jointly by Community Care Behavioral Health (CCBH) and the Department of Human Services, information is provided about two separate but complementary activities designed to analyze local trends and inform next steps: 1) a series of focus groups held with youth and caregivers to discuss the issues related to psychotropic medication use and 2) quantitative research conducted by CCBH, comparing psychotropic medication use by Medicaid-enrolled youth residing in out-of-home placements (in the child welfare and juvenile justice systems) with that of their peers living at home.

 pdf.gif Improving Systems to Protect Children in Allegheny County: A Report of the Child Fatality/Near-Fatality Review Team, 2012 
Prepared by: Ebony Robinson, Jean O'Connell Jenkins, LauraEllen Ashcraft, Evelyn Whitehill and Erin Dalton September 2013 

The Child Protective Service Law requires that circumstances surrounding cases of suspected child abuse resulting in child fatalities and near fatalities be reviewed at both the state and local levels. To comply with this mandate, the Allegheny County Department of Human Services established a Child Fatality/Near-Fatality (CFNF) review process. The CFNF Review Team examined eight cases of child abuse in 2012 that resulted in three fatalities and five near-fatalities. This report describes the findings and outcomes from these reviews as well as the case practice and system reforms enacted to reduce the likelihood of future child abuse-related incidents.

pdf.gif From Almshouses to Excellence: A History of Child Welfare in Allegheny County (11.2 MB) 
For 50 years, Allegheny County government has been responsible for providing public child welfare services for the residents of Allegheny County. To commemorate this significant anniversary, a publication was commissioned by the Department of Human Services to chronicle the history of child welfare in the county.

While Allegheny County is now recognized as a national leader in creating better outcomes for children and families, this was not always the case. This publication describes the evolution of child welfare in Allegheny County, from the almshouses and orphanages of the 18th and 19th centuries, to the reforms of the 20th century, to the current emphasis on integrated services that focus on family strength and permanency for children.

World Wide Web Icon The Next Page: Bold ideas behind Pittsburgh's first child-welfare system - Meet the heroines
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 4, 2014

pdf.gif Brief Wraparound Residential Model and In-Community Stabilization Process: Description, Implementation and Future Plans
John Sawyer, Keith Solomon and Jeanine Rasky, August 2013  
Over the course of 23 months between July 2010 and June 2012, DHS worked with several placement providers as well as with local and national experts to develop innovations in residential care and to implement a model of care that works with youth, their families and other community partners to prepare them for success after leaving placement. The model is designed for use both during the youth's time in placement and through continuous coordination as the youth returns to the family setting. The concepts involved in this model, known as Brief Wraparound Residential and In-Community Stabilization, are straightforward and simple. However, the work involved in transforming the operations and direction of a "traditional" congregate care facility into one which operates according to this model and its principles is challenging and complex.

This document provides a brief history of the model's adoption in Allegheny County, an overview of the goals and core components of the model, a description of the transition care and in-community components that complement the model, and the elements of program operations that will be monitored and evaluated as part of the model's implementation.

pdf.gif Assessing Allegheny County's System of Care Initiative
July 2013
From 1998 through early 2011, the Allegheny County Department of Human Services (DHS) received three federal grants targeting children and youth with serious emotional disturbances who were also involved in one or more child-serving systems. The programs supported by these grants, known collectively as the System of Care Initiative (SOCI), had three concurrent goals: 1) to improve functioning of children, youth and families at home and in the community; 2) to improve coordination and service integration by overcoming service fragmentation; and 3) to empower families by providing information, education and choice.

DHS commissioned Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago to evaluate SOCI's impact on out-of-home placements in a number of child-serving systems (including child welfare, mental health and juvenile justice). This report describes Chapin Hall's research into the impact of SOCI on the lives of the 806 children enrolled in one of the three programs from 1998 through 2011.

pdf.gif Family Group Decision Making: A Quantitative Analysis of the Impact on Out-of-Home Placement
Fred Wulczyn and Bridgette Lery, Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago
January 2013.
In 1999, Allegheny County became the first county in Pennsylvania to implement Family Group Decision Making (FGDM), an intervention designed to improve safety and permanency for maltreated children. FGDM involves bringing a family's natural support system to the table with the formal child welfare system when making critical decisions, including placement decisions. In 2011, with the support of Casey Family Programs, the Department of Human Services commissioned Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago to evaluate the effectiveness of FGDM.

This report describes Chapin Hall's research into the impact of FGDM on the 2,908 children who were enrolled from 2001 through 2010.

pdf.gif Allegheny County Department of Human Services Quality Improvement Activities: 2009–2011
Jean O'Connell Jenkins, Katie Meehan Arvay, Ebony Robinson, Evelyn Whitehill and Erin Dalton
November 2012.  

The Department of Human Services (DHS) conducts a wide range of quality improvement (QI) activities designed to enhance the delivery of direct services in Allegheny County. While some offices have well-established quality assurance processes, in 2008 DHS created a dedicated QI Team within the Office of Data Analysis, Research and Evaluation, to augment those activities and to expand the process across DHS program offices. QI activities across DHS include: the Quality Service Review, an annual measure of the child welfare system's practice model and associated standards; Qualitative Case Reviews, in which the team presents relevant administrative data associated with permanency outcomes in order to identify policy and practice themes and recommendations; the Child Fatality / Near Fatality Review Team, which meets whenever a child fatality or near fatality occurs under circumstances in which there is suspicion and/or substantiation of child abuse or neglect; the Emergency Response Meeting, which convenes each time there is a child death due to suspected abuse or neglect and/or when a child has been in the custody of CYF within the past 16 months; the Director's Action Line, in place since 1996, which provides information, support, referrals and consultation in response to grievances, concerns and complaints reported by consumers, providers and/or staff; the Integrated Service Planning Process, which works to develop, implement and monitor a comprehensive plan for children whose extensive and complex needs require coordinated support from multiple systems; and the Multi-System Rapid Response Team, designed to creatively address ongoing systems issues facing children and youth with complex needs.

This report provides a three-year review of these key QI activities.

pdf.gif Improving Systems to Protect Children in Allegheny County: A Report of the Child Fatality/Near Fatality Review Team, 2011
Prepared by: Ebony Robinson, Jean O'Connell Jenkins, Evelyn Whitehill and Erin Dalton
Published November 2012

Act 33 of 2008 requires that circumstances surrounding cases of suspected child abuse resulting in child fatalities and near fatalities be reviewed at both the state and local levels. To comply with this mandate, the Allegheny County Department of Human Services established a Child Fatality/Near Fatality (CFNF) review process. The CFNF Review Team examined 15 cases of child abuse that resulted in eight fatalities and seven near fatalities in 2011. This report describes the findings from these reviews as well as the case practice and system reforms enacted to reduce the likelihood of future child abuse-related incidents.

pdf.gif Aging Out of the Child Welfare System in Allegheny County: Descriptive Analysis, Challenges and Implications
Prepared by Sarah Goodkind, Jeffrey J. Shook, Clifford A. Grammich, Kevin Kim, Ryan T. Pohlig, David Herring, Lisa Schelbe, Karen Kolivoski
Published September 2012. 
Since 2006, The Allegheny County Department of Human Services (DHS) has provided transitional support for more than 1,000 youth aging out of the child welfare system, through programs designed to help them successfully move into higher education or the workforce.

DHS supports high-school youth by providing them with mentors who help them get into and succeed in college. Because many youth are not interested in going on to college, DHS has also expanded its workforce development programs into a network of motivating, competently staffed options that provide real-world training and employment opportunities. This report describes the origins and development of this improved system.

pdf.gif Aging Up, Not Out: Moving Youth from Foster Care to Employability
Prepared by Bruce Barron
Published September 2012.
 

In 2006, in recognition of the fact that many youth aging out of the foster care system are inadequately prepared for either college or employment, DHS established a dedicated Independent Living Unit designed to focus on the particular needs of this population. Since that time, the unit has reached more than 1000 youth through what is now a well-coordinated system of college preparation and workforce development programs. The evolution of this system, as well as its current structure and successes, are described in this report.

pdf.gif HOPE: Helping Others Through the Power of Education: A Report on a Series of Events Held in the Spring of 2011
Prepared by Robin Orlando, Jeanine Rasky and Evelyn Whitehill
Published June 2012.

Throughout May and June of 2011, three events were held that brought together youth and families from a number of DHS children and youth-serving systems (e.g., behavioral health, intellectual disabilities, child welfare), the Allegheny County Health Department and the Juvenile Justice system, to engage them in empowering activities designed to: 1) provide a better understanding of the resources available to them; 2) increase their skills to utilize these resources; and 3) expand their ability to connect with their peers and build community networks of support. These three events, collectively known as HOPE (Helping Others through the Power of Education), were: 1) Spin the Wheel to Wellness Workshop; 2) Strong Communities Celebration and Resource Fair; and 3) Youth Empowerment Conference. A description and evaluation of each are included in this narrative report.

pdf.gif Showing the Way Out: Youth Support Partners Use their Personal Experiences to Support Other Youth
Bruce Barron 
Published May 2012.

For more than three years, the Allegheny County Department of Human Services (DHS) has employed young graduates of the foster care system as Youth Support Partners (YSPs), or peer-to-peer mentors and advocates for youth currently in the system. Allegheny County is the only county in the United States to have set up an independently-functioning YSP unit, and much has been learned about the process of hiring, training and supervising this new breed of staff. This report provides insight into the benefits and challenges of employing – and being – YSPs, and shares some of the stories told by these resilient and remarkable young adults.

pdf.gif System of Care Initiative: Building Creative Partnerships - Involving Families in Program Evaluation
Sheila Bell, Administrator, Integration Project Management
Published 2012.
Over a period of 13 years, the Allegheny County Department of Human Services (DHS) received federal funding to implement three programs designed to serve children with serious emotional disturbance who are involved in multiple child-serving systems and their families. Serving over 1,000 families between 1999 and 2011 in nine Pittsburgh communities, Allegheny County's three grants were collectively known as the System of Care Initiative (SOCI). A core value of SOCI was the involvement of family members at every level of program implementation. In addition to participating in each of the three individual programs, Allegheny County's family members played an important role in SOCI's system-wide evaluation. The challenges and rewards of this innovative approach are the focus of this report.

pdf.gif Collaborative Approach to Juvenile Justice
Reform An Analysis of Juvenile Justice Related Services in Allegheny County

Jeffery Fraser
Published November 2011.
JJRS was created in Allegheny County more than a decade ago to ensure that adolescents in the juvenile justice system who are struggling with behavioral health issues receive coordinated services tailored to their individual needs. Today, JJRS plays a key role in the collaborative approach taken by the behavioral health, child welfare and juvenile justice systems in the county to address this challenging population by offering services ranging from early screening and case management to helping to educate probation officers, judges, and others about the behavioral health system and treatment, coordinating appropriate planning/dispositions with Juvenile Probation, and facilitating the involvement of parents and guardians.
pdf.gif Executive Summary of Juvenile Justice Related Services in Allegheny County
pdf.gif Key Characteristics of Juvenile Justice Related Services in Allegheny County
pdf.gif Parent Participation, a successful approach to Involving parents in Allegheny County 

pdf.gif A Picture of Success  
Bruce Barron
Published September 2011.
  
This article describes the first year of the innovative partnership forged between DHS and the Manchester Craftsmen's Guild. MCG incorporated youths served by DHS into its after-school, arts- education programs and initiated daytime classes for students in alternative placements. The article details the program's significant successes and identifies the considerable implementation challenges.

 Transforming Lives Through Systems Integration 
Bruce Barron
Data current through 2010. Published 2011.
The Department of Human Services contracted with a writer, Bruce Barron, to document the "Improving Outcomes" Initiative. This first report summarizes the history of the principles that led to the development of the initiative and highlights how the impressive systemic changes the department has brought about can lead to unmistakable transformations in the lives of the children and families they serve.
 

 Informing the Design of the DHS "Improving Outcomes for Children and Families" Initiative 
Emily Sturman, Alexa Seretti and Erin Dalton
Data current through 2008. Published 2011.
Stakeholders designing an integrated child-serving system wanted to find answers to questions such as "How many children in Allegheny County are in out-of-home care?" "Where in the county do these children live prior to out-of-home placement?" and "What are the major entry points to out-of-home care?" to help shape the implementation of the initiative. DHS examined child welfare placement data and trends in point-in-time placement 1996-2008 to answer these questions and others. Potential areas of focus for the initiative were identified based on the conclusions drawn from the findings in this report.
 

pdf.gif Prevention Programs Across the DHS
Megan Good, Brian Bell, Ebony Robinson and Erin Dalton
Published August 2011.
Many DHS programs and services include a prevention component, and a persistent challenge for administrators is developing a comprehensive understanding of what they all are and how well they work. This report presents a framework for prevention in the human services field, classifies and catalogs the prevention efforts across DHS, and discusses key pieces of information that are important to understanding the evaluation status and priorities of each program or service. Next steps are formulated and presented based on DHS-wide trends and specific priorities for program evaluation.

pdf.gif Starting Early Together - Assessing a System of Care Initiative
Sarah Thurston and Jessica Chambers, Published 2011
An Allegheny County federal system of care grant from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) closes in September 2011. In preparation for this closure, the operating program, known as Starting Early Together (SET), was charged with identifying the most essential elements of the early childhood mental health service coordination and family support services that it offered with the goal of sustaining those elements through DHS and partners. This report outlines the process and findings of focus groups with families, staff and other stakeholders to outline the successes, challenges and essential elements of the SET program.

 pdf.gif Improving Child-serving Systems to Protect Children in Allegheny County - A Report of the Child Fatality/Near Fatality Review Team 2009-10 
Ebony Robinson, Jean O'Connell Jenkins, Alexa Seretti and Erin Dalton. Published 2011 
Act 33 requires that circumstances surrounding cases of suspected child abuse resulting in child fatalities and near fatalities be reviewed at both the state and local levels. To comply with this mandate, Allegheny County established a Child Fatality/Near Fatality (CF/NF) review process chaired by a renowned pediatrician. The CFNF review team examined 19 cases of child abuse that resulted in child death or near death from January 1, 2009 through December 30, 2010. This report describes the findings from these reviews and the case practice and system reforms enacted to reduce the likelihood of future fatalities or near fatalities.
 

pdf.gif Residential Enhancement Service Planning Opportunities for New Directions Program (RESPOND): A Program Evaluation
Megan Good, Charles Odah, Brian Bell and Erin Dalton
Data current through August 2010. Published 2011.
The RESPOND program was designed in 2003 to serve youth whose complex needs are not met by the current array of services available. These youth face serious barriers to well-being because of multiple complex issues such as intellectual disabilities, severe emotional disturbances, violent behaviors, autism spectrum disorders and mental illness. The intensive care provided during RESPOND is designed to stabilize care and develop a treatment plan that can be sustained over time, improving the participants' quality of life, reducing crises and saving treatment costs in the long run. The analysis presented in this report examines if these goals are being attained through the evaluation of program data, interviews with caregivers and professional supports, and the analysis of service and cost data. The findings indicate that the RESPOND team delivers highly coordinated services that result in decreases in hospitalizations and aggression, improved functional behaviors, sustained cost savings, and marked shifts from crisis to planned service consumption. The findings also indicate that there is room for improvement during the discharge process.
 

pdf.gif Child Welfare Placement Dynamics: Long-Term Trends in Allegheny County's Child Welfare System
Megan Good and Erin Dalton
Data current through April 2010. Published 2011.
This report examined the dynamics of the foster care system in Allegheny County from 2000 through 2009, examining caseload sizes; demographics of children receiving services; entries to, exits from, and reentries into care; placement data including type of placement, length of placement, primary placement type and number of placements; and, community data indicating the distribution of out-of-home placements in the county and communities with high child welfare usage rates. Some of the key findings of this report are that caseloads have declined over the last ten years, and at the same time, an increasing percentage of youth have been placed into kinship care as the percentage in foster care and congregate care have declined. The findings also illustrate that placement experiences often vary significantly based on a child's age or race. Similarly, the likelihood that children return to care after exiting to a permanent setting also vary by age, race, and previous placement setting.

 The Role of Race in Child Welfare System Involvement in Allegheny County  
Mary E. Rauktis, Ph.D. and Julie McCrae, Ph.D
Data current through 2008. Published 2010.
This report examined the dynamics of the foster care system in Allegheny County from 2000 through 2009, examining caseload sizes; demographics of children receiving services; entries to, exits from, and reentries into care; placement data including type of placement, length of placement, primary placement type and number of placements; and, community data indicating the distribution of out-of-home placements in the county and communities with high child welfare usage rates. Some of the key findings of this report are that caseloads have declined over the last ten years, and at the same time, an increasing percentage of youth have been placed into kinship care as the percentage in foster care and congregate care have declined. The findings also illustrate that placement experiences often vary significantly based on a child's age or race. Similarly, the likelihood that children return to care after exiting to a permanent setting also vary by age, race, and previous placement setting.
 

pdf.gif Building The Homewood Children's Village: 2009 Allegheny County DHS Local Government Case Competition 
Alexa Seretti, Katie Meehan, Dana Kunzman, Erin Dalton  
Published 2010.
The third annual Department of Human Services Local Government Case Competition drew 61 participants, the most in competition history, and students were recruited from new areas of study. After learning about a new collaborative called the Homewood Children's Village (HCV), students were assigned to teams and given the next day and a half to develop a strategic plan for the organization. The plans included ideas for how HCV could create a more "child-centered" neighborhood, using the renowned Harlem Children's Zone as a model, to boost academic achievement and improve children's lives in the Homewood area of Pittsburgh. 
 

 Homewood: A Community Profile 
Data current through 2008. Published 2010.
This profile of the Pittsburgh neighborhood of Homewood was compiled by DHS to assess demographic changes and examine quality of life issues—poverty, education, health care—in Homewood and in the City of Pittsburgh and Allegheny County to accurately assess the community's assets and needs. A group of concerned residents and community leaders recently formed to launch the
  Homewood Children's Village in this troubled area and their desire to examine existing programs serving children and families was the impetus for this report.
 Addendum  

 An Examination of Training for Family Support Center Staff
Megan Good, Alexa Seretti, Erin Dalton
Data current through 2010. Published 2010.

Family Support Centers (FSCs) are community-based centers providing services to increase the strength and stability of families and to increase parents' confidence in their parenting abilities. The University of Pittsburgh's Office of Child Development (OCD) is the primary organization providing training courses and technical assistance to FSC staff. DHS solicited feedback from FSC staff about the quality of this training in order to improve it and better support staff in their work as they serve families throughout Allegheny County.
 

 Children of Incarcerated Parents
An Analysis Conducted by the Allegheny County Department of Human Services
Data current through 2006. Published 2008.

Much of the recent media attention on incarceration has focused on the incarcerated population, the facilities in which they are housed, and the cost of their stay. However, the discussion rarely centers on the children of the incarcerated. This report, however, broadly explores who these children and parents are and, to the extent possible, describe their experiences in the human services systems. This report is intended to start the discussion about the full spectrum of needs that these children may have and how we can better serve them.
 

 Child Welfare, Juvenile Probation, and Jail Cross-Participation 
Data current through 2008. Published 2008.
DHS examined cross-participation of DHS clients across the child welfare system, the juvenile probation office, and the Allegheny County Jail (ACJ). By better understanding cross-over youth, DHS will be better equipped to provide prevention and intervention services to children in care, as well as to work collaboratively with the Juvenile Probation Office and ACJ to ensure that the unique needs of these youth are being met. The analysis in this research brief describes youth participation in these systems from June 2007 through June 2008. 
 

My Life: Stories from Youth in Allegheny County's Child Welfare System
Recorded 2009.
Young adults who live in foster care face many challenges, particularly as they transition from out-of-home placement to independence. Given the opportunity, youth in the child welfare system offer great insights about how their lives were shaped by the services they received and by the absence of needed services. DHS tapped into this valuable resource and created My Life. 
 

 The Future of DHS: The 2007 Local Government Case Competition
Randy Aussenberg, Erin Dalton and Dana Kunzman 
Published 2007.
In November 2007, DHS sponsored its inaugural Local Government Case Competition, seeking to apply the creativity and knowledge of local graduate students toward considering how DHS will look in the next 10 years. Competing teams worked to solve a real problem under simulated business conditions such as tight deadlines and incomplete information to formulate workable, action-oriented recommendations. Student teams presented their results to panels of community stakeholders and DHS staff on November 10, 2007.
 

Improving Outcomes for Children and Families in Allegheny County

The Allegheny County Department of Human Services is committed to safely reducing the number of children in out-of-home placements by integrating children's services and improving outcomes for children who enter the DHS system through the Improving Outcomes for Children and Families Initiative. This department-wide service integration plan helps to ensure that all child-serving systems within the county plan together as one system to determine what services are appropriate for a child and his or her family. 

The specific goals of the DHS Improving Outcomes Initiative were articulated in a  proposal to Casey Family Programs, a national foundation focused on improving the child welfare system, in 2008. Casey and local foundations embraced the concept and provided operational funding assistance. Since that time, DHS has been capturing system-wide and individual-level data about child outcomes to continuously measure the initiative's success.  

Quarterly Reports

While service integration at the systems level is paramount to the Improving Outcomes Initiative, several specific interventions, like the High Fidelity Wraparound (HFW), are being implemented to integrate services at the child-level. The quarterly reports provide descriptive data on these interventions to monitor their implementation.  

 January, 2011
 October, 2010
 April, 2010
 January, 2010 
 October, 2009  

More information about the Improving Outcomes for Children and Families in Allegheny County Initiative